As a poet, socialist, animal-rights campaigner, feminist, mystic, and gay man, it may seem unsurprising that Edward Carpenter’s childhood was spent in Brighton and Hove. Born in 1844, son of local magistrate Charles Carpenter, he grew up at 45 Brunswick Square and attended Brighton College.
Despite being an early activist and thinker for many movements that Brighton has come to represent, Edward Carpenter himself viewed his childhood town as the symbol of everything he was attempting to resist. Growing up in fashionable society, Brighton came to represent an artificial and conventional form of life, a middle-class society bound by proprieties that left him frustrated and that ultimately he rebelled against.
He describes his childhood between Brunswick Square and Brighton College as a stifling affair. Despite being exposed to controversial, socialist clergymen such as Frederick W. Robertson and F.D. Maurice, who were frequent visitors to his father, he found life confined by the rules of society and restricting his self-expression, describing his education at Brighton College as a “nipping of buds” in his autobiography My Days and Dreams.
The lives led by the middle class women he found in Brighton inspired him to become an advocate for women’s rights. Living with six unmarried sisters, none of whom were allowed to work by his society conscious parents, he was taken with the boredom experienced by such women.
The lifestyles he experienced growing up shaped his later life and causes, as he himself states:
The tension of those early days, the unexpressed hatred which I felt, though I did not understand it, for the social conditions in which I was born, was destined, when its meaning gradually realized itself in my consciousness to become one of the great directing forces of my after life.
Leaving Brighton and Hove for Cambridge in 1964 he eventually moved from the south of England to teach the working class at Sheffield, buying land at Millthorpe in order to retreat to the countryside and live by manual labour. Openly co-habiting with other men, most famously his long-term partner George Merrill, Edward Carpenter attracted many individuals dissatisfied with Victorian society. He became known for written works such as Towards Democracy and The Intermediate Sex, which were translated into other languages.
An advocate for homosexual emancipation and an active member of the Fabian Society, he worked with other famous figures of the time, such as Havelock Ellis and William Morris, as well as having a profound influence on the younger generations. E. M. Forster’s novel Maurice was inspired by his meeting Carpenter and Merrill, which lead to a long and lasting friendship. He was also a source of inspiration to Robert Graves and Siegfried Sassoon.
Moving to Guildford after the First World War, he died in 1929 after becoming incapacitated after a stroke, following Merrill who had been buried a year before.
Dora Palache, Brighton History Centre